Monday, August 23, 2010

Public Health Certification Schools

Public Health Schools, colleges, and universities provide programs of study for earning a certificate or a degree in fields of public health. Both courses of study are intended for practicing public health or health care professionals.

Public Health Schools that offer the Certificate in Public Health (CPH) have designed this course of study to add to public health knowledge and skills. The program is meant for practicing professionals in various fields of public health, and for those with appropriate education and work experience who are considering a career in the field of public health. Coursework for public health certificates can be applied toward the Master of Public Health (MPH) degree, provided that an undergraduate degree has been obtained and the student is registered in a master degree program.

The Master of Public Health (MPH) degree is recognized as the primary professional degree in public health. MPH programs prepare students with bachelor or higher degrees, usually in the health care field, for teaching professions in public health. Professionals can add to their career potential with the CPH or MPH through specialized post-graduate studies in areas of public health.

Public Health Schools provide programs for professionals from various health field backgrounds for improved expertise, influence, and effectiveness. Course credits can be applied toward MPH in clinical research, public and industrial policy, health education, as well as other health care professions.

Public Health Schools teach applications of biostatistics, epidemiology, behavioral, and environmental health sciences to address health problems, approaches and resolutions to health problems, and orientation towards health promotion and disease prevention. MPH programs address many health issues and allow pursuit of study for the master's degree in areas of special interest with combined degree programs.

Combined degrees offered some by some Public Health Schools include the DVM/MPH (Doctor of Veterinary Medicine/Master of Public Health), which provides advanced training related to infectious diseases and public health; the MD/MPH (Doctor of Medicine/Master of Public Health), which allows medical doctors to apply the principles of both medicine and public health in their practices; the MSN/MPH (Master of Science/Master of Public Health), which prepares nurses for positions in public health agencies; and the PharmD/MPH (Pharmacy/Master of Public Health), which allows training in public health with relation to pharmacotherapy and health promotion, disease prevention, and medication safety.

Sunday, August 22, 2010

Obesity - Public Health Enemy Number 1

Today many American adults, teens and children are facing the alarming fact that they are either overweight or obese. Metabolic obesity, as it is know understood, is a factor of neuropsychological stress, hormonal imbalances and dietary lifestyle. The following statistics are staggering:
  • The U.S. Bureau of the Census estimates that approximately 58 million American adults (26 million men and 32 million women) are obese.
  • According to the National Institutes of Health, 55% or 97 million adults in the U.S. are overweight or obese, with at least 33% (58 million) of adults considered overweight and 22% (39 million) considered obese.
  • The prevalence of obesity increased from 12.0% in 1991 to 17.9% in 1998. A steady increase was observed in all states; in both sexes; across age groups, races and educational levels; and occurred regardless of smoking status.
More than a problem of appearance, obesity can also be a life threatening condition. As the number of pounds increases, the risk for gallstones, high blood pressure, heart and kidney diseases, stroke, colon and breast cancer escalates. Other medical problems associated with obesity, include adult onset diabetes, hormonal imbalances, osteoarthritis, fatigue and sleep apnea - abnormally long pauses in breathing during sleep.

Genes, Hormones and Sensible Metabolic Planning
Medical research indicates there may be a genetic basis for 40-60% of persons at risk for developing obesity. However, the more common causes may actually reside within the complex interaction of these genes that code for an individual's metabolism and the additional effects of such hormones as; estrogen, insulin, triiodothyronine (T3-a thyroid hormone), cortisol, as well as, lifestyle and dietary choices.

Chemicals called leptins act as the 'middlemen' messengers between the brain and one's fat cells effecting hunger and the feeling of satiety. Stress, high carbohydrate meals, lack of exercise, and in some women added estrogen from the use of birth control pills - even Premarin™ - will often contribute to a marked increase in body fat. Note here that estrogen promotes an increase in the size and number of fat cells.

Stress releases cortisol from the adrenal gland. This hormone single-handedly impacts on your thyroid, estrogen and carbohydrate metabolism. High cortisol levels will make more estrogen and decrease triiodothyronine the powerhouse thyroid hormone that drives cell metabolism. High carbohydrate diets release insulin. In some patients it might not be immediate, but eventually, there may be a tendency over time that the bodies' cells become insensitive or even unreactive to the insulin it produces. Even though this effect may be transient, such higher than normal insulin levels stimulate the production of fat stores in your body.

Furthermore, fat (adipose tissue) is a major source of estrogen metabolism in postmenopausal women through an enzymatic conversion of testosterone into estrogen. This is usually seen in men as gynecomastia and symptoms of hyperestrogenism in women as I discussed in a previous article in April 2002 issue of Conscious Choice.
Obesity is defined as being 20% over the ideal or desirable weight, and severe obesity as being 40% above desirable weight. For instance, if your normal/desirable weight is 135 pounds and you current weight is 161 pounds you are already considered obese. If you normal/ideal weight is 135 pounds and your current weight is 192, you are considered severely obese. Anything above 40% is considered morbidly obese.

Dieting gimmicks, such as grapefruit binging, metabolite enhancers, fat and sugar blockers or pasta banning have been proven ineffective for long term weight loss success, often accompanied by unwanted side effects for the consumer. It's not about fad plans or "take it off quick" schemes. It's about learning to maintain healthful, enjoyable eating choices along with a realistic exercise routine. The key is balance.

Slimming down does not have to involve a whole life overhaul. Small, effective changes can go a long way in helping you reach a healthy goal weight.

The Correct Weight Loss Plan for the Right Reasons
When evaluating your weight loss program consider the following:
  • Under the supervision of a Licensed Health Care Professional who has the experience and knowledge on the subject.
  • Metabolically tailored and personalized to meet your specific needs.
  • Implementing a safe and effective rate of loss. Rapid weight loss can decrease muscle mass, and lead to thyroid and menstrual irregularities.
  • Offering a "Non-Dieting, Non-Hunger" approach, with One-On-One, Private Nutrition Counseling Sessions.
  • Incorporating all the five food groups; Protein, Carbohydrate, Vegetables, Fruits and Healthy Fats into the daily diet.
  • Teaching portion size control at home and while dining out.
  • Offering strategic planning for holidays and special occasions.
  • Offering solutions for unwanted cravings.
  • Implementing "Menu & Meal Planning" sessions.
  • Including continuing education on Foods for Health Maintenance & Disease Prevention.
  • Giving you the option to choose Home, Restaurant or Healthier Fast Food Choices.
  • Setting Realistic Goals that fit into your personal & professional lifestyle.
  • Teaching you not only how to lose the weight, but how to keep it off.
  • Address the possible issue of Adrenal, Thyroid or Hormonal Imbalances.
Unfortunately, just checking for obesity genes won't help much. However, evaluating an individual's metabolic makeup can be very useful. Checking for glucose-insulin resistance, a specialized blood test called a 2-hour glucose tolerance test (2-hour GTT) begins the process. Measuring salivary hormones levels of estrogen, cortisol and T3 provides clues to the individual's hormones regulating fat metabolism. In addition we utilize, state of the art computer bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). BIA is just like getting an ECG (electrocardiogram). It is much less expensive as well as taking all of 3 minutes. BIA provides an efficient, reliable and reproducible method of measuring and monitoring an individual's body composition of percent fat to lean muscle, intracellular to extracellular hydration status and overall cell vitality. Combining all this with a thorough physical exam and nutritional/ dietary/lifestyle history gives Judy Manisco and myself the information to work with you in obtaining your unique health goals.

Why We Need a Public Health Care Option in the United States

The "public option" is the key part of President Obama's proposed health care reform. In fact, without the public option I don't think it can really be considered true reform. It is that essential.

Basically what this option would allow people to do is to decide for themselves whether they want to stick with their current health insurance plan or whether they want to switch to a government health care plan.
It's important to understand the key point, the "public option" entirely optional (as it's name makes clear.) If you are happy with your current insurance plan then you don't need to change to the new plan.

So why are the insurance companies so dead set against it? Because they know that it will be far less expensive, far better plan. Basically it comes down to this: They don't want the competition!

Why should you care about what the insurance companies want? You shouldn't. And you should realize that their impending anti public option commercials are nothing but propaganda designed to scare you away from supporting health care reform. Their end goal is to keep the system how it is so they can continue to make huge profits at your expense.

This is the choice: Do you care more about your health care and the health care of the rest of the people in America or do you care more about the insurance companies making huge profits? For me the choice is obvious. We need health care reform. We need to catch up with the rest of the world in this most basic area.
This time please do not be fooled by the insurance companies. They fooled the American people into being against the Clinton health care reform plan in the '90s and they plan on doing the same today to derail Obama's plan.

We need a public option for health care so that all Americans can be covered and we can all save money and help save the economy. The outlanding profits of the insurance companies have a lot to do with the recession too. This is a "no-brainer." Destroy the health insurance industry and save the rest of the country. That's definitely a good trade off for almost all of us. It's time to make it happen.

Saturday, August 21, 2010

Public Health Online Degrees

A Public health worker is person who has a lot of things to cover in their jobs. Most careers in the field of public health are also involved in advocates representing people who are not capable of voicing out themselves like children, the mentally handicapped, the disabled and the poor, this people cannot help themselves. Their job description is almost similar to that of the social worker. With only a difference in the terminologies that were used.

The usual kind of work a health professional is engaged is the alignment of the people in need with the given resources that are available. Like say for instance a temporary shelter for the homeless, care for the abandoned children, and other stuffs related to public service. In other words if you want to be a health worker your desire to help others should be exceptionally strong. Your heart should be dedicated in helping other people sincerely.

Generally a social work bachelor's degree is a requirement for health jobs, sometimes however sociology or psychology degrees are considered as an alternative. A social work bachelor's degree will be a prerequisite and a preparation for the practical applications of jobs in public health. You will be dealing with different kinds of people, and these people are usually less fortunate.

If you would like to advance further from doing fieldwork to management, then you must plan on taking up a master's degree. Taking up a higher education will make you aware and you will be able to learn managing various cases that has something to do with health. You will also be engaged in bigger operations and your awareness will widen and your level of awareness will make determine operational and strategic needs of public health operations.

There are available public health online degrees and this will actually prepare you in becoming a front-liner in public health. You will be trained in caring and guiding your patients. It will qualify you for positions that are considered to be entry level in scope and nature. There are also advance programs under public health online degrees. However your expectations should be mostly manual, handling things all by yourself it's like a field instruction that will at least give you the experience that you need to make more improvements in your career.
There are other things that you should undertake so you will be granted a license. Public health online degrees are actually easy to handle, the difficult part is the internship. This is something that most people would consider as a difficult task. It is not actually that difficult the problem with this however is that all theories may be supplied by online subjects and practical ones will be applied during the internship.

Public health online degrees should be pursued by people who have a heart, those who are considered to be volunteers and with little thoughts of being compensated, whose primary goal is to help, assist and make other smile out of the difficulties that they are facing, they should be thinking more of others and they should be warm towards others. There are many sites supporting public health online degrees and people who intend to volunteer for this should be up for the difficult tasks. Theoretically public health online degrees may be a great help to people who would like to extend help.

Friday, August 20, 2010

What Are The Top Eight Deadly Public Health Enemies?

In our society today, there are many people who are not well. They struggle with sickness, illness, and disease. Indeed, there are eight deadly public health enemies that are sending many Americans to an early grave. These health enemies kill more than 24 million people a year and cause untold suffering and disability on millions of others. Let's discover what they are.

Public Health Enemy #1: Heart Disease
Contrary to the opinion of many, heart disease isn't a disease of cholesterol but of artery inflammation. Many people who have heart attacks have normal cholesterol. So, what is the true culprit here? "Oxidized" LDL, excessive free radicals caused by hypertension, diabetes, smoking, fatty meals, and elevated insulin levels. These problems, however, can be eliminated and the risks of heart disease significantly lowered.

Public Health Enemy #2: Cancer
In spite of millions of dollars spent on research and great advances in diagnosis and treatment of cancer, for many people who have cancer, many times the outcome is still a painful death. Cancer appears to develop from damage to the DNA of our cells by unstable molecules that have been occurring from 10-20 years.

Public Health Enemy #3: Stroke
Strokes can be deadly and typically occur suddenly with no warning. In the New England Journal of Medicine in 1995, Dr. Meir Stampfer reported that: "15 percent of all strokes could be related to elevated homocysteine, a by-product of protein metabolism that is elevated in individuals who have low levels of folic acid and vitamins B6 and B12."

Pubic Health Enemy #4: Diabetes
More and more people are suffering from and/or developing diabetes. This seems to be the result of insulin resistance. Many doctors treat the blood sugar level problem instead of the real problem, which is insulin resistance. There are many things people can do to prevent diabetes from developing to begin with.

Public Health Enemy #5: Osteoporosis
More than 25 million North American have osteoporosis. Poor bone health is the result many times of nutritional decencies. Failure to have adequate amounts of vitamins such as B6, C, D, K, folic acid, magnesium, zinc, and cooper, are a few essential vitamins in which inadequate amounts can result in poor bone health.

Public Health Enemy #6: Arthritis
Millions of people, over 165 million, have this painful and debilitating disease. More than 70-80% of the population over age 50 have some form of arthritis. Not only do non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication does not appear to slow the steady progression of this disease, but they also cause dangerous side effects which has resulted in hospitalization for some people and death others.

Public Health Enemy #7: Alzheimer's
This disease is caused by oxidative stress. Over 29 million people suffer from dementia.

Pubic Health Enemy #8: Obesity
For the young and old, obesity is a huge problem. Also disturbing is the fact that for the first time in history, there are more obese people than people of normal weight. Many researchers are beginning to find obesity is related to insulin resistance as well .

So, there they are. The eight deadly public health enemies that are killing and debilitating millions. The good news is there is ammunition that everyone can have in his or her arsenal to fight back. What type of ammunition is needed? The "Top Ten Ways to Combat the Eight Deadly Public Health Enemies" will reveal just what they are.

Thursday, August 19, 2010

Bed Bugs and Public Health

Bed bugs have been around for centuries, and big cities have always had a certain low level of them. In fact, we've had a bit of a reprieve from them over the last 40 years because people used harsh poisons to keep them at bay, but due to a ban in poisons or toxic pesticides-bed bugs are now making a comeback are being blamed for the increase in infestations.

Well, the first thing that you need to know about is that bed bug bites are itchier than mosquito bites. This is because of the anesthetics in bed bug's saliva. Bed bug rash will appear an hour after you were pierced. But to some people, the bed bug rash appear only after some days or week from being bitten. This depends upon the body's reaction to chemicals being secreted by bed bugs.

The most commonly affected areas of the body are arms and shoulders. Reactions to the bites may appear delayed: up to 9 days before lesions appear. Common allergic reactions include development of large wheels, often>1-2 cm, which are accompanied by itching and inflammation. It has also been suggested that the allergens from the bed bugs may also be associated with asthmatic infections.

Even though the public health concerns are authentic, they are not good enough to importune widespread panic. Bed bug invasion can be eradicated or eliminated with pesticide sprays and dusting but the owner should get professional help, in case the condition gets traumatic or irritating.

So, above are some of the common symptoms and methods to detect and treat a bed bug infection. Keep your home and surroundings clean and neat, and enjoy a healthy life!

Sunday, August 15, 2010

Public Health Safety Awareness

Public health is one of the major concerns of the 21st century. With lots of new viruses and diseases this is understandable. Health care institutes all around the world spend lots of money every year to provide people with vaccines or cures for all the new diseases, but they just seem to pop-up out of nowhere. Even television commercials were made to inform people about the best ways to take care of themselves and others around them.

The best way of doing that is for all to understand the basic ways that a certain virus is spreading and nevertheless the basic hygiene measures. As we all have been taught, it's better to avoid certain things than to have to cure them.

Moreover, it can be said that these days information is available to almost everyone so the "I didn't knew" excuse if not acceptable. The fewest, and to some unimportant, things can help us live healthier. As we come into contact daily with lots of people, lots of places, it is highly recommended that we wash our hands as often as we possibly can. Everyone comes in contact with lots of germs with our hands and it's highly possible that our organism isn't familiar with some of them. It is a useful method to prevent infection. Another method is to use wet wipes or antibacterial gels. Also covering your mouth and nose in case of cough or sneeze are mandatory measures.

Also, another method would be trying to open widows and let some fresh air into your home. Even if it's very cold outside, a dose of fresh air will strengthen your body and it will protect from viruses. Crowded places can also be a mean of spreading a virus as many of them have an oral spreading. It is recommended to avoid crowded places, but in our daily life it is sometimes impossible to do that. We need to be very careful when we choose to treat ourselves. Some diseases can have specific mutation so that the regular pill doesn't have the desired effect. Consulting a doctor is a good idea as he can provide lots of useful information regarding a specific illness.

All in all, it can be said that sometimes it is better to invest a little in prevention measures than to pay lots of money, and not to mention time, in an expensive treatment.

Saturday, August 14, 2010

Public Health Career Training Online

The general population has many needs that have to be met on a regular basis. Health is usually at the top of the list, which is why there are numerous health professionals working to improve and maintain health in society. Public health is a popular career because it allows professionals to work with a variety of people and areas. Online career training is becoming a prevalent way for students to earn a degree in public health.
The profession spans across a large range of areas and activities, but all the work focuses on the evaluation and regulation of health for the public. Professionals target general or specific areas, which can include nutrition or a metropolitan city's healthcare system. It is highly common for professionals to handle complex problems involving overall healthcare services and systems. They contribute to keep communities free from outbreaks of infections. They also work with individuals, families, and communities by promoting healthy behaviors. The field can have graduated students entering careers that have them working for wellness programs in schools, hospitals, universities, and government firms. With the field being incredibly diverse students have many options to consider before deciding on an online degree program. Family health, health education, epidemiology, and environmental health are just a few of the options that students can choose to focus their schooling on.

Online training for public health is commonly only available at the graduate level, which includes a master's or doctorate degree. This is because most careers need individuals who have more in depth training. Students can't enter a graduate degree without first completing a bachelor's degree. A bachelor's degree provides students with a general education that can be applied to a graduate degree program. A health science degree is the ideal option for students to gain a broad foundation focused on the medical field. Student's study includes biology, chemistry, health education, and healthcare administration, which provides the knowledge needed to succeed in a graduate degree program.

Graduate degree programs online include a master of public health or a doctor of public health. An MPH degree is a science-based program that incorporates specific information on how to use knowledge to improve public health, educate, and provide preventative measures. Education covers advanced training in health and administration duties. Environmental science, epidemiology, public health biology, management, health promotion, and disease prevention are some course subjects that are covered through a master's program. Master's degree programs prepare students to step into leadership roles as food safety inspectors, health inspectors, public health advisors, and more. Furthering education at the PhD level qualifies students for upper level management and roles in academia.

At the doctorate level students specialize in one specific area such as nutrition, behavioral science, child health, and epidemiology. Students enrolled in an epidemiology program will mainly study how diseases spread. The goal of education is to prepare students to contribute to the field by creating strategies to keep outbreaks in check. Courses that supplement specific fields of study include leadership, public health internship, and management. Students that want to be involved on the research side of the profession should consider entering an online training program at this level.

Monday, August 2, 2010

Holism in Action - Public Health Versus Personal Health - What's the Difference?

Consumers of health care often face the difficult task of deciding for themselves what to do with "expert" advice. Mainstream medicine has moved toward setting the standard of evidence-based practice. The advantages of evidence-based health care would seem obvious - increasing the choices of effective and safe treatments for any given condition.

The disadvantages are less obvious, but they exist. What happens if the evidence indicates that people generally, or even a subgroup of people who have a specific diagnosis such as diabetes, fare better or worse on a particular therapy. For example, in general, for the public health, eating whole grain foods is better than eating processed foods from which fiber and vitamins were removed.

Then you have your own personal situation. You could launch on a campaign of eating only 100% whole wheat bread, pastas, and even pizzas. It could benefit your nutritional status. You'd consume a lot more fiber and B vitamins. Those are generally good for you.

But, in holistic medicine, providers and consumers individualize the treatments.  What happens if you are intolerant of wheat and related products?  What if you have celiac disease (gluten intolerance, where gluten is found in wheat, rye, and barley-containing foods)? What if you have a wheat allergy of one mechanism or another? Eating whole wheat foods will make you sicker in a variety of ways, perhaps even causing poor absorption and assimilation of the very nutrients that would benefit you, but that can't get into your particular body's cells properly.

In the latter cases, eating whole grain rice, for example, might be the best course of action to get the health benefits of a "whole grain" approach without stirring up a food intolerance or allergies.

This is a simple but common example of how general public health recommendations can benefit the population at large, on average, but not necessarily you personally. The individual must always weigh and balance what is right for him or her. Many different types of holistic medicine include the individual's unique situation in choosing the specific treatment program.

Sunday, August 1, 2010

Public Health Agency of Canada Recommendations for Avian Flu

At least one Canadian group formed after SARS hit Toronto is working with the World Health Organization (WHO), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP) and other organizations to help boost public safety.

That group is the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC), which was formed in 2004. It acts independently but is responsible to Canada's health minister.

PHAC is in the midst of creating a pandemic plan for Canada, said Aggie Adamczyk, media relations officer with the agency.

The plan is not being formulated just for the Avian Flu but for any disease that could reach pandemic proportions, although PHAC is monitoring the Bird Flu situation.

The agency recommends "good respiratory etiquette," she said, which includes using a tissue or sleeve when a sneeze comes upon you. Plenty of hand washing is also a PHAC suggestion.

Where the regular Influenza A symptoms include aching muscles, sore nose, high fever and coughing, people wary of the Bird Flu should be on the watch for symptoms pinpointed in a 1997 Hong Kong outbreak.
In that outbreak, people "developed symptoms of fever, sore throat, cough and, in several of the fatal cases, severe respiratory distress secondary to viral pneumonia. Previously healthy adults and children, and some with chronic medical conditions, were affected," according to WHO Web information.

As with the WHO, PHAC isn't rushing to recommend the use of SARS-style face masks to ward off the Avian Flu, Adamczyk said, although that could change depending on the course the H5N1 virus takes.
"It's a little bit early (for masks or antiviral drugs) at this point," she said.

Even so, global health officials need to be ready for whatever new infectious disease comes their way, she said.

"No one really knows if it will be Avian Flu or something like SARS. You have to be ready for (any disease)," Adamczyk said.

It is possible to create a vaccine for a pandemic flu, although making it ahead of time is risky because the flu could mutate, limiting the vaccine's effectiveness. The amount of vaccine that would be needed for a pandemic could also prove to be a problem, although research is underway to find technologies to streamline the vaccine production process.

In the event of a pandemic, public health officials could ask people to remain in their homes and refrain from gathering in public places. Other viral outbreaks have led to similar scenarios in North America in the past.
The WHO recommends the following to public health groups dealing with cases of Avian Flu:
* Co-ordinate services: Agricultural, veterinary and health services (along with other sector services deemed as appropriate) should exchange lab information and other data.
* Vaccination for public health reasons: Health authorities may consider vaccination against more common, seasonal influenza for persons at risk of occupational exposure to the H5N1 virus. Vaccination against seasonal influenza is a public health measure aimed at slashing the progression of HN51 along with the seasonal flu. Even so, vaccination against seasonal influenza will not protect people against infection with the H5N1 virus.
* Protection of persons at risk of occupational exposure: This is aimed at helping protect people who work on farms or other businesses wherein contact with fowl is common. Such people should wear personal protective equipment as follows:
1. Protective clothing, preferably coveralls plus an impermeable apron or surgical gown with long-cuffed sleeves plus an impermeable apron.
2. Heavy-duty rubber work gloves that can be disinfected.
3. Standard well-fitted surgical masks should be used if high-efficiency respiratory masks are not available. Masks should be fit-tested and training in their use should be provided.
4. Goggles.
5. Rubber or polyurethane boots that can be disinfected or protective foot covers that can be discarded.
Tamiflu should be made available to people who work in at-risk conditions, the WHO recommends. In addition, people in such occupations should be aware of the early clinical signs of H5N1 infection and check for them daily (as well as for two weeks after the last exposure to potentially-dangerous conditions), with the caveat that many of those signs are also apparent in more common diseases.
The following symptoms should be reported to a doctor, according to the WHO:
"Most patients infected with the H5N1 virus show initial symptoms of fever (38 C or higher) followed by influenza-like respiratory symptoms, including cough, rhinorrhea, sore throat, and (less frequently) shortness of breath. Watery diarrhea is often present in the early stages of illness, and may precede respiratory symptoms by up to one week. Gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, vomiting) may occur and headache has also been reported. To date, one report has described two patients who presented with an encephalopathic illness and diarrhea without apparent respiratory symptoms."
People suspected of carrying the virus should be put in isolation and virus samples should be sent to WHO laboratories, the group said.

Friday, July 30, 2010

What is Done Right in Public Health and Health Insurance?

Health care is taking a careful look at the current swine flu issue, while many of us are wondering how to protect ourselves if there is an epidemic or pandemic of this flu. In America, the opinion is we have the most highly functioning health care system anywhere, so that's where the explanation is as to why Mexico is facing such a huge problem in preserving life for it's people. Here in the US we have good medical care access and health insurance so are preserved from facing the Mexican issues. But why do we still maintain health better right now than the Mexican people?

Well, it is not that I don't appreciate the health care that we have here in the states, however, the main thing that Americans have that other countries don't is the CDC. This is actually a huge help when dealing with the swine flu or any disease or illness that is easily spread. The CDC works in conjunction with the WHO to help locate, detect and trace cases of spreadable diseases, and help limit them while searching for treatments, cures and vaccines. Although our medical system is more advanced in its reporting than in third world countries.

Other factors affecting other countries, making them more susceptible to health crisis like the current swine flu outbreak are other issues that the face such as: poor and dirty water supplies, lack of good nutrition or generalized malnutrition, lack of education about diseases, poor hygiene, communal living
Our country does have it's own issues within our health care system and insurance system which causes many questions from our citizens. However, our government is involved in our health care in that they provide nutritious foods, clean water and have an agency who monitors disease and informs us to keep us safe.
This crisis is really important but there are many health care issues the government provides for us, even though there are pieces and parts of this system that need work. We have the health insurance and medical coverage to keep us healthy but public health provides much more. While staying abreast of this current crisis, keep in mind we have a wonderful public health system in place to keep us all as healthy as possible.

Tuesday, July 27, 2010

Benjamin Disraeli - The Great British Conservative Leader Who Introduced the Public Health Act

Benjamin Disraeli, First Earl of Beaconsfield (1804-81) was a great British statesman and novelist. He was born in London and came from a Jewish family that had converted to Anglicanism.

He was a most ambitious and a larger than life individual. He dressed in colorful clothes. He always chose his words carefully and spoke only when he had something memorable and witty to say.

He began life working for three years in a lawyer's office. He then - unsuccessfully - tried to start a newspaper.

His first big breakthrough was when he achieved fame and success as a popular novelist. His first novel was Vivian Grey (1826). The most famous of his many novels were perhaps his two political novels, Coningsby (1844) and Sibyl (1845).

Disraeli joined the Conservative Party and in 1837 he entered the British Parliament as the member for Maidstone.

His first speech to Parliament was heckled by other Members of Parliament who disliked his flowery manner of speaking and his colorful clothing. In concluding his speech, he made the famous reply: "Though I sit down now, the time will come when you will hear me."

He became the leader of the Young England movement, which was home to that section of the Conservatives known as the Romantic Tories. The Romantic Tories were political conservatives who were critical of the effects of the Industrial Revolution that were occurring in Great Britain at that time. They believed that the monarchy and the church were the natural protectors of the agricultural and industrial working classes and were suspicious of the Industrial Revolution's tendency to destroy the traditional protections and obligations which had been in place in Britain since time immemorial.

He also opposed the free trade policies of his fellow Conservative, Sir Robert Peel. Peel engineered the repeal of the Corn Laws (1845-46), which controlled the price of wheat and of other types of grain via the imposition of protective tariffs on the import of foreign grain. Instead, Disraeli favored protectionism to protect British agriculture and industry. In later days, Disraeli stopped supporting protectionism to a large extent, having come to the view that the Corn Laws had mostly favored the interests of landowners and hurt the poor.

While in Parliament, Disraeli became Chancellor of the Exchequer three times and then became the leader of the Commons (the lower house of the British Parliament). In the latter role, he introduced the Reform Bill of 1867.

Disraeli served as prime minister of the United Kingdom for two terms - first, in 1868, and then, later and more extensively, in the period 1874-80. During his second prime ministership, he promoted British imperialism (that is, the extension of the British Empire) and a forward foreign policy. In 1876 he passed legislation conferring on Queen Victoria a new title: Empress of India.

Disraeli led Britain into the Second Afghan War (1878-79) and into the Zulu War (1879), and he sought to lessen the power and influence of Russia.

He showed much skillful diplomacy in protecting Britain's foreign interests. He stopped a war between Russia and Turkey by sending a British fleet to the Dardenelles. By such measures he checked Russian imperialism in Turkey and the Balkans.

In the 1878 Congress of Berlin, Disraeli successfully promoted a treaty that was most favorable to Britain. He persuaded Otto von Bismarck, the German Chancellor, to support his treaty and its clauses keeping Russia out of the Mediterranean Sea. His treaty, which restricted the power of Britain's opponent, Russia, incidentally contributed to European peace at that time and was praised by Bismarck for doing so.

During his second administration, Britain became half-owner, with Egypt, of the Suez Canal (1875). This move gave Britain power over Egypt and, more importantly, over the Suez Canal, that vital but vulnerable component in the new shorter and quicker route between Britain and its colonies in Asia, East Africa and the Pacific Ocean.

Disraeli also passed legislation codifying and extending certain social reforms - for example, slum clearance and urban renewal, the Public Health Act of 1875, and more rights to workers to join trade unions and promote their interests. However, it should be noted that many of these measures had been originally initiated under the administration of Disraeli's predecessor and great rival, the Liberal William Gladstone.

Friday, July 23, 2010

Public Health Still Not an Option

Senator's Charles Schumer D-NY and Jay Rockefeller D-W.Va huffed and puffed but could not blow the private health insurance market down.

Though I am thankful that a Public Health Option still does not seem to be realistic possibility, this AP article only further displays the complete lack of understanding that US lawmakers have of the root cause for the HealthCare "Crisis", COST!!!!

I'm not trying to pretend Health Insurers have done anything to help mitigate premium costs. What I am saying is that Health Insurers are not the ONLY bad guys and girls.

I recently went to a broker conference for a regional not-for-profit health insurance carrier. At that conference this carrier broke out exactly where every penny of every premium dollar is spent. Did you know that for every dollar you and/or your employer spend on health insurance premiums over 61 cents of that dollar goes to hospitals and doctors? Did you know that 26 cents of that same dollar goes to home health care and pharmacy?

That means 87 cents of every health premium dollar you and your employer spend goes directly to health care!!!

So 13 cents of every dollar goes to the Health Carrier. Now to be fair, 11 cents was going towards Administration costs and 2 cents towards surplus, so its not like the carrier was just banking all that cash.
What I want you to take away from this article is that COST is the infection creating the American Health Care Crisis. A Public Health option does nothing to cure our cost problem. With a Public Option, Health Insurance Premiums go down, Taxes go up...

I would love to hear your thoughts on this issue!

Wednesday, July 21, 2010

Asbestos - EPA Declares Public Health Emergency

In June 2009, the federal Environmental Protection Agency, EPA, invoked powers granted it in 1980 for the first time, and declared a public health emergency. The cause: asbestos and the diseases it's caused in two northwest Montana towns. In Libby and Troy Montana, more than 500 people are sick from asbestos related diseases, including asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma, a rare form of cancer caused by inhalation of fibers.

The two towns' populations total about 3900 people, many of who worked in the vermiculite mine in Libby. Vermiculite is a very lightweight mineral used in insulation, and it contains asbestos. In the course of mining and processing it, the tiny fibers become airborne, and workers and town residents inhaled them. Contaminated dust and fibers deposited on workers' clothes, and was carried to their cars, homes, and anywhere else they went.

About 50 more cases of serious asbestos related disease are diagnosed every year in Libby and Troy. Asbestosis causes serious impairment of lung function, and lung cancer and mesothelioma are fatal diseases. Mesothelioma is a very slow-growing cancer, whose symptoms may not be diagnosed for 30 or 40 years after exposure. By the time it is diagnosed, the victim's life expectancy may be measured in months. Because of the long delay between exposure and diagnosis, it's likely that many more cases of mesothelioma will emerge in the coming years.

Recent research has established that exposure to airborne fibers for as little as one or two months can lead to the development of mesothelioma 30-40 years later. The vermiculite mine in Libby, run by W R Grace Co. was closed in 1990, but long-time residents and workers had been exposed for years, some for their entire lives.

Dr Alan Whitehouse, an epidemiologist and asbestos researcher, wrote recently in the American Journal of Industrial Medicine that the mesothelioma epidemic in Libby will continue probably continue to increase, peaking in 10 to 20 years. He called it a very serious public health problem, and argued for greater surveillance of asbestos use, and earlier detection of the disease.

The US Department of Health and Human Services will grant $6 million to the Lincoln County health department. The funds will cover health care for residents suffering from related diseases that is not covered by their insurance, and will pay for all medical expenses for workers who are uninsured.

Sunday, July 18, 2010

The Debate Over the Public Health Insurance Option

There has been too much of debate over which is the right health care reform to be implemented in the United States.

These debates have cross party lines and are heating up as the general public is getting involved in the debate. The main sticking point is the public health option being put forward in order to have a meaningful reform that affects millions Americans. But then there are too many things to sort out so that we can have a better picture as to the advantages and disadvantages of a public option.

The contention of those who are in favor of the public option is that it will make health insurance more affordable and available to millions of Americans. Most of the more 40 million Americans either lack health care insurance from their employers or they simply cannot afford it. Making it more affordable is the main goals for the reform so all these people that were not able to get coverage before will now have health care coverage. It is ideal in the sense that it will provide affordable health insurance for many poorer families.
On the other hand you those people who oppose such government program or corporation to undertake or underwrite this coverage. The other drawback to this is that private insurance companies might be hard hit and go under or go bankrupt.

If you have a government Run Corporation competing with the private sector will have benefit as it will neutralize the high premium rates charge by private companies.

But then if the private sector cannot compete, it will because low cost rates from the government run insurance, it will eliminate competition and thus become a government monopoly. The government run corporation will take over the whole industry and that is not good for the both the industry and the economy. It is indeed very tough to determine what will become of this proposal should it pass through congress and that public option health will be available.

Thursday, July 15, 2010

PhD in Public Health to Keep in Shape

If you are currently employed in an environment which focuses on public health, obtaining a PhD in Public Health certainly gives you potential for a jumpstart in your career. Since numerous institutions offer this degree as a form of online education, you do not need to forsake your current job and paycheck. Being a doctorate degree, financial aid or funding opportunities may be more easily obtained from governmental sources or the institution itself.

Typical of any doctorate program, a student is required to conduct research and analysis in the areas of interest leading to his thesis. Public health offers a vast area for address as students can opt to delve further into epidemiology and discover factors which affect the health and ailments of a population. Community health is also an interesting area of study as geographical elements wield some form of influence over the health of its residents. Whether it is due to lackadaisical attitude or actual lack in educational opportunities, health education and promotion is a subject which needs to be more projected into the population to reduce or even eliminate certain health issues. Occupational health is also drawing attention from various quarters as work-related health issues are more evident. They display themselves in physical, mental as well as psychological attributes. It is essential to address these problems as down time easily translates into sick days and financial loss for employers.

A major part in getting a PhD in Public Health is the research work. To deliver effective healthcare service to the public, health policies need to be developed to address current and future needs. Having a short term goal will not address health issues and may cause detrimental effect. Effective management and implementation of health policies is essential to ensure desired results are achieved. As part of the process of enriching public health, health education and promotion are best for implementation as many health issues can be avoided if the public is sufficiently educated on the do's and don'ts. Prevention is better than cure.

Tuesday, July 13, 2010

Choosing a Career As a Public Health Nurse

If you enjoy assisting others with their healthcare concerns and being a teacher at the same time public health nursing may be for you. Public health nurses specialize in treating and preventing ailments. Many work for local clinics and community health centers. They also spend a great amount of time traveling and educating individuals on health care issues. Many also travel to make home visits to seniors who are unable to leave their homes to go to doctor's appointments or to visit new mothers to ensure that their newborn babies are developing properly. Being a public health nurse will allow you to use a variety of skills in a variety of different settings.

One of the main responsibilities and goals of a public health nurse is the focus on prevention. In clinical settings such as hospitals the goal is to treat a condition and cure the condition if possible. Public health nurses do treat ailments, but their main objective is to prevent diseases and complications from occurring. Many work in organizations such as Planned Parenthood to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections through community outreach programs directed towards schools and high-risk populations. Some also participate on councils and assist in research projects to offer data and suggestions on improving access to healthcare for specific populations and communities with the goal of increasing awareness and improving the health and lifestyles of individuals in order to prevent the onset of disease and conditions.

The majority of public health nurses work for the local government, although many can be found working in clinics, schools, community centers and other establishments. Unlike nurses who work in hospitals,  you could expect to work pretty conventional hours. In addition, many enjoy the flexibility to travel and the pace is typically different from the pace of a hospital. Salaries for nurses in this field tend to be a bit lower than nurses in a clinical setting. However, those nurses who choose public health nursing find that there are other benefits such as government job perks or a conventional schedule that make up for the difference in clinical nursing salary. Furthermore, most professionals in this field do possess a bachelor's degree in nursing and at least a year or two of clinical nursing experience. Having these requirements provides a base upon which a public health nurse can utilize skills already applied in a clinical setting from previous employment and experience.

Sunday, July 11, 2010

The Vital Role of Public Health Nursing

A survey done by the Department of Health of United Kingdom reveals that about 74% of adults in United Kingdom consumed an alcoholic drink daily. Worse still, more than 37% individuals reported they didn't know the harmful effects of addiction to alcohol. These statistics reveal two things and they are as below:
- Adults getting addicted to alcohol and
- Adults are unaware of the health consequences.

These worrying signs could be replicated to almost any country. That is probably why public health nursing plays a key role in curbing this menacing statistic.

A public nurse would work to create awareness in the community about certain health issues. They identify the health care needs of a population and further, find out the needs depending on the sub-populations, families etc. This way, families who could be at a risk of infecting a certain disease receive immediate healthcare aid thereby ensuring good health at all times. The public health nurses normally adopt a systematic approach to finding a fix for the health care needs of a society. They would meet community heads, families and study data related to the general health of the section of the society.

Bio-terrorism and epidemics are a serious threat to any society, and public health nurses with their regular campaigns work to ensure people are constantly updated about these issues and how to tackle them, if and when they arise. Most importantly, they would also study the possible risk factors to health of a society based on the demography of the society. For example, a public health nurse would counsel and advocate health protective measures to a society if it is in the vicinity of a chemical factory. In such an example, the nurse would counsel on what needs to be done in case of a chemical leak and so on.

Public nurses take a scientific approach to help them fix some health issues plaguing the society. Basically, they educate the society about possible health problems and ensure that the society and the community, as a unit responds to any health challenge posed to them. They also help in providing healthcare aid in the event of a community epidemic. By all counts thus, the role of a public health nurse in ensuring good health of individuals, cannot be discounted.

Friday, July 9, 2010

The Importance of Water Quality to Public Health and Individuals

The question why water quality critical to public health and Individual mentioned by many people. Drinking pure source water is an issue of concern for people's health in developing and developed countries throughout the world.

The importance of water and human beings' health.
The wonder of why is water quality so important to a person's long-term health has to do with different things. The human body is primarily a bag of fluids. Water is essential to the mechanics of the human body. Our bodies cannot work without having it just like a car cannot run without gas and oil. In the fact that, all the cell and organ functions made up in our entire anatomy and physiology depend on water for their functioning. Water serves to alleviate constipation by moving food through the intestinal tract and thereby eliminating waste- the best detox agent as a lubricant; forms the base of saliva and fluids that surround the joins. Water regulates the temperature of our body and metabolism.

In addition to that, water is the daily maintenance of our bodies; moreover water plays a key part in the prevention of disease. Drinking nearly 1 little of water daily can decrease the risk of colon cancer by 45%, bladder cancer by 50% and it can potentially even reduce the risk of breast cancer.

Since water is such a key component to our physiology, it would make sense that the quality of the water must be just as critical as the quantity. Drinking water must always be pure and free of contaminants to ensure individuals health and wellness.

According to Clean Water Action, the recent news and reports show that in the U.S. Most contaminated taps are not safe for drinking due to heavy industrial and environmental pollution. Hence, approximately 40 percent of rivers fail to meet pure water standards, and an estimated 7 million Americans be sick yearly from impure tap water, toxic bacteria, chemicals and heavy metals routinely penetrate and pollute our natural water sources and nearly 6 million individuals die of waterborne or water-related diseases through out the world.

A good water filtration system set up in your home is the only way to actively monitor and ensure the quality and safety of your drinking water. Pure source 2 water filter systems can remove 90-99% of all contaminants from city and well water to deliver healthy drinking water for you and your family.

To get better informed about the available choices you have in relation to the Pure source 2 water filter you can establish at your family and what I personally commend, Go to my website.

Tuesday, July 6, 2010

PhD Programs For Public Health

You enjoy caring for our societies most vulnerable citizens and have dedicated your life to the Public Health System. Still there are limits to the impact you have on how public health is being delivered. You can make an enormous difference in this area by continuing your education and obtaining your PhD in Health Services. Lack of time can no longer be the excuse for not taking that extra step. It doesn't take long to fire up your laptop and research the many Online PhD programs available in the field of Health Services.

Issues facing our public health system and health services programs are becoming more complex in today's growing communities. If you want to be part of these changing times in public health the need to advance your education has become significantly more important than ever before. Make sure you are in a position to positively impact your public health career by obtaining your PhD in Health Science through an Online Doctorate degree. It is extremely easy and takes very little time to browse the many PhD programs available Online. In the time it takes you to have your morning coffee you could be on your way to advancing your career.

Take your education that one step further and be prepared to serve at the forefront of health care services in both the private and public sectors. Rather than simply providing care according to regulations that have been determined by other professionals be part of the elite group of recognized leaders shaping the future of how health care is being delivered. You have already invested a great deal in your education make sure you are not the one being left behind by taking a few minutes to research Online PhD programs.

Further you education now and be in a position to influence social policy and empower citizens. You will be recognized as a world leader in the field of Public Health and invited to speak at national and international symposiums. As a highly sought professional your views and opinions will be listened to by respected piers. Don't let your dreams fade on the back burner any longer and investigate the many Online PhD programs available in the Science of public health.

A Doctorate Degree will also provide you with the knowledge and skills required to conduct independent research within the public health arena. You will also be well qualified in pursuing a career in academic settings such as government, industry, consulting and community health agencies. Belong to the elite circle of health professionals responsible for shaping the way health services are delivered right across the country.

It is an enormous responsibility and privilege to care for the most vulnerable people in society. Take your academic career to the next level and be part of the important task of shaping our public health care system. It just takes a few minutes on your computer and a few clicks of your mouse to choose an Online PhD program and reach that level of excellence that will help propel you in the all important field of public health care.

Saturday, July 3, 2010

Public Health Insurance is Possible Under Obama

With rising health care costs, it is a relief to know that the Democrats in Congress are inching towards health reforms that would include public health insurance. Public health insurance works very much like private insurance policies, except that it is the federal government, and not an insurance company, that would pay for all your claims. President Barack Obama had revealed this plan during his campaign period.
But how will public health insurance affect the entire United States?

Those opposed to public insurance option are understandably wary that it would put private health insurance companies out of business. While there are some people who would not be upset about driving insurance companies out, the prospect of a virtual monopoly in health insurance is making many Americans a little nervous.

Lewin Group, in a recent study, confirms that a public health insurance policy could force private insurers to fold up by offering deeply discounted premiums. However, the potential for their doomsday really depends on how well public healthcare plans are received by the public, or who is eligible for such a healthcare option.
Key findings in Lewin's study include:

  • If the public healthcare insurance plan uses Medicare payment levels, the premiums significantly less (up to 30 percent) than the comparable coverage by private companies. Hypothetically, a family would be spending $761 on a benefits package under a pubic plan, compared to $970 per family under private companies.
  • If eligibility is limited to small employers, freelancing individuals, and self-employed people, around 42.9 million people would enroll, while the number of people with private coverage would fall by 32.0 million. However, if the public plan uses the reimbursement levels of private companies, only 10.4 million people would switch to the public plan.
  • If the public health insurance plan is available to all employers, at Medicare payment levels around 131.2 million people would enroll, while the number of people with private health insurance would decline by 119.1 million. In effect, the private health insurance industry would suffer a two-thirds reduction in their business. There are currently 170 million people with private health care coverage. But if private payer levels are used, only 12.5 million people will switch to the public program.
  • Assuming all individuals and employers are eligible, net hospital revenues would fall by 4.6 percent or $36 billion, while physicians' net income would fall by 6.8 percent or $33 billion. If eligibility under the public plan is restricted to certain individuals and small companies, the net revenue of hospitals would actually increase by $11.3 billion because of an increase in the number of newly-insured individuals. However, the net income of physicians would decline by $3.0 billion.

Monday, June 21, 2010

Allergic Disorders Are an Important Public Health Problem

Not until 1915 did bronchial asthma, hay fever, urticaria and certain forms of eczema or inflammation of the skin come to be called allergic disorders. At that time the idea of sensitization and reaction of the body to certain foreign substances was established as a reality. Later other conditions such as serum sickness, reactions to drugs, and some blood vessel disturbances were added to the list.

Allergy today is conceived to be the results of contact of a foreign substance with its specific antibody in the human system. Repeated exposure to the foreign substance or allergen sets up the excess sensitivity.
Experts distinguish certain allergic disorders as atopic-meaning a strange disease-because they are largely hereditary, because the allergens which set them up are nontoxic substances like pollens or foods, and because the first manifestation is a swelling with accumulation of water in the tissues. The diagnosis of the condition is made by putting the allergen on the skin, whereupon a blister or wheal forms. This accumulation of fluid is due to the release of a substance called histamine. As a part of our progress we have developed antihistaminic drugs. If these are given before making the skin tests, the wheals do not develop.
The majority of people who develop atopic conditions do so before they are twenty years old. The real allergic conditions appear usually after the person affected is thirty years of age or older. Dr. Harry Alexander points out that a child who becomes subject to asthma at the age of five almost surely is hypersensitive to a specific allergen which it inhales or swallows.

Because of the reactions that occur in the skin the use of tests for determining the nature of allergic conditions is standard.

Bronchial Asthma
When a person has bronchial asthma, the bronchial tubes are narrowed by spasm of the muscles and excess secretion from the mucous glands. As air is forced through these narrowed tubes a wheezing sound is heard. Air is more easily drawn in than expelled. Since part of the air is trapped, it accumulates and the lungs grow larger. The still air in the lung makes oxygenation more difficult and the blue color that denotes lack of oxygen appears.

This form of asthma runs in families. The patient with bronchial asthma usually reports that he had eczema or hay fever when younger or was sensitive to various substances. The symptoms usually come on and are worse at night. The secretion accumulates at night. Because of the difficulty in breathing, the asthmatic person sits up and bends for -ward with elbows on the table, in which position he breathes more easily.

The asthmatic attack may last for hours or days. It is relieved by the use of epinephrine or adrenalin. Dr. Harry Alexander distinguishes three types of bronchial asthma. The mild form is limited merely to a persistent cough with a few paroxysms of bronchial spasm and wheezing. The second form is most serious, beginning with sieges of coughing at night and proceeding to severe bronchial spasms with shortness of breath. The patient finds difficulty in eating and sleeping and drinking and loses weight rapidly. In the third type, secondary infection comes in and is responsible for additional symptoms.

Bronchial asthma should be treated promptly and seriously in order to prevent the permanent changes that develop in the lungs in long-continued cases. Everything possible must be done to detect and eliminate the sensitizing substance.
Hay Fever
About 3,000,000 people in the United States have hay fever. Most cases are due to sensitivity to ragweed pollen. These pollens may be blown as much as fifty miles from their sources. Every area has its own pollens, and charts have been prepared showing the prevailing pollens in each portion of each state.

The allergists say that some time is required to sensitize the individual with hay fever. The antibodies get in the mucous membranes of the nose, in the skin, and in the bronchial tubes so that some asthma may accompany hay fever, and the skin tests are positive for the offending allergens.

For the hay fever patient the first step is to find the pollens to which he is sensitive. This may be done by a series of skin tests. He then has the choice of moving out of the area to a place where he will be free from such contact, or of being desensitized with injections of the offending substance. Usually treatment is begun a few months before the hay fever season begins. Gradually the strength and amount of the injections are increased, so that the patient is receiving large doses by the time the season begins. In some instances treatments are given every two or three weeks all through the year. The use of such methods requires skill and experience, because patients sometimes react most seriously to injections of large doses of the substances to which they are sensitive.

Among other measures used for hay fever is the use of air conditioning, air filters, masks and covering of windows to exclude pollen. Most physicians now supplement the specific treatment with use of the anti-histaminic drugs, which are often remarkably effective in stopping the most annoying symptoms. Vasomotor rhinitis is a condition like hay fever due to sensitivity to dusts or food substances.

Other Allergies
In addition to the allergies that localize in the nose and the bronchial tubes, such reactions may come in the stomach and intestines, in the skin and in the joints. They may manifest themselves as headaches and in disturbances of the blood vessels.

The reaction to foods is manifested by swelling, excess secretion, and spasm of the bowel. This is not nearly so frequent as commonly thought. Nevertheless, children react to eggs, milk, or other proteins. Diets from which the offending substances are eliminated stop the symptoms.

Sometimes the taking of foods to which there is sensitivity is followed by headaches due to pressure in the brain from swelling of tissues. Chocolate, nuts, onions and spices, garlic, and similar foods are the most frequent offenders.

Sensitivity to foods may also reveal itself by eruptions on the skin with severe itching and sometimes with wheals or blisters. Similar reactions occur from the taking of glandular substances or, secondarily, from infections. Occasionally sensitivities manifest themselves by inflammation of the eyes, swellings in the internal ear, purpura with blood spots in the skin, inflammations of nerves or eczema. The investigation of such cases with determination of the factors of importance and elimination of exposure to them, requires patience and intelligence on the part of both physician and patient.

People may be sensitive to the injection of serums and respond excessively to the injection of preventive inoculations. Allergists describe reactions called "contact dermatitis" from mascara, the material in dress shields or brassieres, the dyes used on furs or shoes, or the filler used in rayon underwear. Sometimes the drug used to relieve a sensitivity creates a sensitivity to itself.

Saturday, June 19, 2010

Self Defense in Public Health System

In reference to the F.B.I. Crime Index simple assault incidents grew in the US at a rate of 17% from 1997 to 1998, while forced sex offenses rose 450%.

According to the National Victim Center in the United States 1.3 women are raped every minute for a total of 638,280 rapes committed each year. One out of every three American women will be sexually assaulted in her lifetime. The U.S. has the world's highest rape rate of all the countries which publish sexual assault statistics.

These statistics show that there is a need for a simple and effective system of self-defense for people with no special skills in defense techniques and with an average fitness level.

Nationwide education in this field can remarkably reduce these statistics.

Self defense should be a part of physical education program in schools and colleges.

It is important that when practicing the techniques, a controlled environment be set-up and when available a certified instructor be present when practicing the techniques. They may be too strenuous or dangerous for some people and they should consult a physician before engaging in self defense training.

This course should be the practical instruction for the learning strategies, tactics and techniques of self-defense against unarmed and armed opponents. The program should be oriented to people with average fitness levels. The course should combine the best technical elements, from different types of Martial Arts, in original and adapted forms and included in this system.

There are different parts of the body, which can be used as instruments in defense techniques. Your forehead, back of your head, fingers formed in certain positions, the edge of your palm, a fist, an elbow, a knee, your feet, toes and heels can be effectively used in critical situations. You also can use successful passive defenses such as blocks, moves and stances, which can allow you to develop an effective defense.

There are over 50 vital points on a human body (sensitive skeletal points, or painful points on organs and nerve centers). Adding this knowledge to your defensive repertory can enable you to better protect yourself, family and friends, in extreme situations.

For an active defense you should know these points on your body and be able to protect them as well as successfully use this knowledge against an attacker.

There are more than 10,000 different types of defense techniques. It is not practical or necessary to learn all of them due to the time and effort involved in the process. Even experts usually only know about 150-200 basic applications. They are trained to perform these techniques automatically.

The system should be based on three basic principles:
1. Effectiveness:
There are many techniques which are of value in each situation. I have chosen the one which, I think, will allow you to defeat an attacker in the shortest time.

2. Simplicity:
From the various techniques for any particular situation, the one which was chosen is the simplest (from a technical point of view), because in real conditions even high skill techniques can be significantlyaffectedby stress and threats to your life. At the same time when you have limited time for training, the simpler technique is the better, because you can "digest" it more easily. Special attention was paid to matching the principle of "simplicity" with the principle of "unification".

3. Unification:
It is known that every complex technique can be broken down into simple individual components like "blocks". Techniques with more common "blocks" were chosen because you can learn to do them automatically (as a reflex, without thinking).

This system should be designed as a self-learning system. This means that most of the techniques can be mastered in any environment. You would need only one opponent, but often you can practice even without an opponent, using:
- Shadow training.
- Different objects for practicing punches, kicks etc.
For the convenience of learning the material, every lesson should have a typical plan:
- The opponent's position;
- The technique;
- The preparation for the technique;
- Instructions;
- Possible variants;
- Possible counter by the opponent.
This course as a part of physical education program can deliver many benefits for participants as well as for public health and safety with very little investment.

Thursday, June 17, 2010

What is Done Right in Public Health and Health Insurance?

Health care is taking a careful look at the current swine flu issue, while many of us are wondering how to protect ourselves if there is an epidemic or pandemic of this flu. In America, the opinion is we have the most highly functioning health care system anywhere, so that's where the explanation is as to why Mexico is facing such a huge problem in preserving life for it's people. Here in the US we have good medical care access and health insurance so are preserved from facing the Mexican issues. But why do we still maintain health better right now than the Mexican people?

Well, it is not that I don't appreciate the health care that we have here in the states, however, the main thing that Americans have that other countries don't is the CDC. This is actually a huge help when dealing with the swine flu or any disease or illness that is easily spread. The CDC works in conjunction with the WHO to help locate, detect and trace cases of spreadable diseases, and help limit them while searching for treatments, cures and vaccines. Although our medical system is more advanced in its reporting than in third world countries.

Other factors affecting other countries, making them more susceptible to health crisis like the current swine flu outbreak are other issues that the face such as: poor and dirty water supplies, lack of good nutrition or generalized malnutrition, lack of education about diseases, poor hygiene, communal living
Our country does have it's own issues within our health care system and insurance system which causes many questions from our citizens. However, our government is involved in our health care in that they provide nutritious foods, clean water and have an agency who monitors disease and informs us to keep us safe.

This crisis is really important but there are many health care issues the government provides for us, even though there are pieces and parts of this system that need work. We have the health insurance and medical coverage to keep us healthy but public health provides much more. While staying abreast of this current crisis, keep in mind we have a wonderful public health system in place to keep us all as healthy as possible.

Tuesday, June 15, 2010

Emergency Disaster Preparedness - Preparing For Public Health Emergences

Public health emergencies are caused as result of threats such as storms, tornadoes and power outages and also may be of biological, chemical, or radiological disasters. Although each one is different and requiring unique responses, preparing and learning about public health emergences can help equip and protect your family.

Threats strike when they are not expected and because of this, preparation is the way forward in this kind of disaster. Families may or may not be in the same place when this happens. Planning together as a family is a step ahead of time. Looking at how you intend to communicate when an emergence happens and types of disasters common in your area and what each member should do is very important.

You might consider keeping some essential supplies on hand for emergences for example drinking water, dry or canned food, a battery-powered radio, flashlight and batteries, first aid supplies, prescription medication, special items for babies and members of the family who have special needs. Check these from time to time to make sure that the expiry date for your supplies such as foods has not passed and things like batteries and flashlights are in working order.

Learning more about these disasters, diseases, treatments and how these may affect your family is a big step. Government web sites are a very good source of information on public health threats or emergences. You may also ask your employer, school and day care facility whether they have developed emergency plans. Contacting your local heath department can help you get involved and learn more about community planning efforts.

Should an emergency arise, always be alert by tuning in to your television and radio news stations for emergence messages and important safety instructions from government authorities. Officials on the news give instructions on where emergence sites are located and how to get there and who should go. During this time, it is very important that you bring for each family member medical records that contain picture id, current medications and allergies and current age and weight.

Read up on key terms such as isolation, quarantine, sheltering-in-place and evacuation. Training a family member in CPR/First Aid is quiet helpful. It is better late and ready by 5pm today than be caught unawares by noon tomorrow.